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6 Things You Need to Know About Your Tax Responsibilities as an LLC

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6 Things You Need to Know About Your Tax Responsibilities as an LLC

By Caron_Beesley, Contributor
Published: November 13, 2012 Updated: September 23, 2016

Do you operate a single “owner” or member limited liability company (LLC)? Thinking of forming a multi-member LLC? Either way, you’re likely to have questions about how your business is, or will be, taxed.

Here’s what you need to know.

The Basics of Tax Law for LLCs

First, it’s important to understand how an LLC is structured according to tax law. Unlike a corporation, LLCs are not taxed as a separate business entity. Instead, all profits and losses "pass through" the business to each member of the LLC. LLC members report profits and losses on their personal federal tax returns, just like the owners of a partnership. The business does not pay federal income taxes, although some states do apply an annual tax to LLCs.

Depending on the number of members in your LLC, the IRS will treat your business like a sole proprietorship or partnership. However, certain LLCs are automatically classified and taxed as corporations by federal tax law. LLCs not automatically classified as corporations can choose their business entity classification. To do so, an LLC must file Form 8832. Refer to this guide from the IRS for guidelines about how to classify an LLC.

Income Taxes for Single Member LLCs

If you operate single member LLC, then the IRS will treat your business as a sole proprietorship (unless you elect to be a corporation) – meaning that the LLC itself does not pay taxes. Instead, you report all profits and losses of the LLC on your personal income tax return on (Schedule C) and file it with your 1040 tax return.

Get forms and read more from the IRS about single member LLC tax responsibilities. This page also explains when you should file using your social security number and when you should use your Employer Identification Number (EIN).

Income Taxes for Multi-Member LLCs

If your business has multiple owners, the IRS will treat your business as a partnership, unless you elect to be taxed as a corporation (read this blog from SBA guest blogger Barbara Weltman for more on this). Again, the business doesn’t pay taxes, but each owner is taxed on their share of the profits via their personal tax returns (attaching Schedule E). How a multi-member LLC shares profits is defined in the LLC Operating Agreement. Although not required by law in most states, this agreement structures your LLCs financial decisions, including how profits and losses are distributed.

You’ll also need to file Form 1065 (as all partnerships do) with the IRS. This form helps the IRS determine that each member is reporting income correctly. The LLC also must give each partner a Schedule K-1, showing each member’s share of partnership income, credits and deductions. Each member then reports this on their individual Form 1040 and Schedule E. If the LLC is a corporation, it should file Form 1120.

Read more from the IRS about an LLC filing as a corporation or partnership.

If your LLC splits profits and losses in a manner that doesn’t match each member’s percentage interests, you’ll need to request a “special allocation” from the IRS – something you ought to consult about with an accountant or tax lawyer.

Paying Estimated Taxes

LLC owners and members are self-employed and therefore aren’t subject to tax withholding, so each member must pay estimated taxes and self-employment taxes (Medicare and Social Security) quarterly to the IRS and their state tax office. Read more in How To Calculate and Make Estimated Tax Payments.

If you have a multi-member LLC with an owner not actively involved in the LLC (i.e. they invested in the business but don’t participate either through providing services or making management decisions), then that owner may be exempt from paying self-employment taxes. Your accountant or tax lawyer can tell you if your business meets the specific requirements of this exemption.

Sales Tax

Sales tax is a point-of-purchase tax imposed by state and local governments. The purchaser pays it and, as a small business owner, you assess it, collect it and pass it on to the appropriate authorities within the prescribed time. Rates and laws vary from state to state, which often leads to confusion, especially if you sell to customers in more than one state. To understand when sales tax applies and how to pay it, read Sales Tax 101 for Small Business Owners and Online Retailers.

State Taxes

If you operate an LLC, you’ll typically pay taxes to your state in the same way you do to the IRS – through your individual returns. Some states charge an LLC tax on income earned by that LLC, on top of the members’ income tax paid. Other states charge an annual LLC fee, unrelated to income, also known as a franchise tax, registration fee, or renewal fee. It’s a good idea to check the tax and business law in your state before you form an LLC.

Useful Resources

About the Author:

Caron_Beesley
Caron Beesley

Contributor

Caron Beesley is a small business owner, a writer, and marketing communications consultant. Caron works with the SBA.gov team to promote essential government resources that help entrepreneurs and small business owners start-up, grow and succeed. Follow Caron on Twitter: @caronbeesley

Comments:

The LLC in which I am an non-participatory partner pro-rates us our share of their profitability but does not provide any cash to us for the payment of these taxes. How does one pay a tax on a $500,000.00 tax liability from an organization from which it receives no financial support? Any good tax attorney's I could call?
I am a LLC. Do I still need to file personal taxes?
I have not been able to find anything in the Texas law regarding reasonable compensation for an LLC member that is the sole owner treated as a sole-proprietor for income tax purposes. Members of Sole-member LLCs and LLCs that have elected to be treated as a partnership are prohibited by the IRS from being treated as employees. So, I have never treated any such LLC member as having received wages for federal or state purposes. However, I was recently informed by the Texas Workforce Commission that all LLCs are treated as Corporations and, as such, payments to LLC members are treated as compensation subject to state unemployment tax. If this is the case, it seems like TWC would catch all LLCs filing Texas Franchise Reports by comparing them to the Unemployment Tax Reports filed. The fact that dividends and distributions to LLC members are treated as compensation for Margin Tax purposes would indicate that such payments are not always considered compensation. I will have to do more research on this subject before filing Unemployment Tax Reports for all LLCs.
I have recently open an LLC in NH, and I started working with an LLC out side of the USA who is provinding me with consultations. I want to know how much would my LLC get tax for this foreign bills entering my expenses in the USA.
I set up a single member LLC in California with Nolo.I have been operating as a sole proprietor previously. Do I set this up as a "conversion of an existing business" or a "new business"? If I convert do I have to take other action?
Hello, I recently opened an LLC in November of 2015. However, now that the tax season is creeping up, I do not know what forms to file and how to pay taxes.I operate an online store and I am not sure if I should pay sales taxes on that on top of my personal income taxes. Please help as I am very new to this. Is there a monetary limit of the income of which i have to pay taxes on ( I made less than 1000 dollars with losses of more than 8000). Please advise
Hi Experts I have Question on LLC, Please Help. 1. IF all LLC partners are out of USA. Do they still need to pay a federal tax ( selfemp tax to IRS) 2. Members does not have to Pay state tax as they are not in Physical in any state. Only LLC pay tax in a state where it regiserd? 3.Any other taxes which members or LLC need to pay if all members are outside and LLC does not have any Physcial office in States?
Thanks for writing on this topic. Many a time people do not have such good knowledge about tax responsibilities. It is very good that you have described it here.
I was not aware that a single LLC would be treated as a sole propreitor. Good to know.
LLC members, please be sure to check with your state regarding employment taxes. For example, in Texas, members/managers are employees and therefore are expected to pay taxes on their wages. Wages is defined as remuneration for services rendered. Texas state law does not allow a member/manager to draw "dividends and distributions" in lieu of wages, and therefore must pay taxes on the monies received as payment for any services rendered.

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